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Course Level
Delivery Method
Classroom Instructor-Led Course
Professional Development Credit Hours
There is no pre-requisite for this course.

"An enjoyable, thoroughly interesting course presentation which allowed interactive debate." A.B., Suez Global LNG


Malcolm Johnson has more than 30 years experience at Shell in the natural gas/LNG sector. He was Strategy and Planning Manager in the United Kingdom and Germany during the period of gas liberalisation in Europe. Malcolm has been involved in the development of a number of LNG projects including over 13 years on the Sakhalin LNG project from its inception to final investment decision involving the full range of commercial activities including governance, marketing, LNG contract negotiations and technical/ commercial interface management. He has also provided commercial advice on the Elba LNG receiving terminal expansion, floating LNG, LNG contracts and project development assurance. He is a recognised subject matter expert on commercial LNG matters. Malcolm is now a Director of eMJay LNG Limited providing expert advice and consulting services to the natural gas/LNG industries.


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Overview of the LNG Value Chain (CLASSROOM) - LNG1

Course Schedule

Date Time Location Price* Registration Deadline**

*Prices do not include VAT, GST, or any other local taxes. All applicable taxes will be added to the invoice.
**Please register by the deadline to help us ensure sufficient attendance and avoid postponing the course.

Course Summary

This course provides a comprehensive overview of the LNG value chain from upstream supply, liquefaction, shipping and regasification of LNG into downstream markets. The course is designed for new entrants to the LNG business or for those with some knowledge of the business wishing to broaden their understanding of the complete value chain. Those without prior knowledge of the LNG business may wish to familiarise themselves through the pre-study web based course.

After learning the fundamentals about LNG, the course covers the liquefaction process and LNG plants, shipping and regasification terminals with a focus on what happens along the value chain. This is followed by an understanding of the commercial issues affecting LNG projects, the players and the various drivers affecting the development of LNG projects. Key aspects such as project development, timescales and the range of Agreements and their integration will be covered. The course then moves on to the global LNG supply sources, markets and trading and the factors affecting the growth of the LNG business.

Includes Online Pre-study Module
This course is accompanied by a preparatory course available online. Delegates will receive a web voucher as part of their joining instructions upon confirmation of registration. By taking advantage of this "blended" learning approach, in-class time and learning are optimized.

What Will You Learn?

  • What is involved in developing an LNG project
  • The LNG value chain and the investments required  
  • The processes involved in gas treatment and liquefaction  
  • The importance of gas quality and upstream supply issues  
  • Impact of economies of scale
  • The specialised nature of LNG ships  
  • How shipping fits in the value chain
  • How a regasification terminal operates
  • Who the key players are and their drivers
  • How an LNG project is developed  
  • Commercial issues impacting LNG projects  
  • The main Agreements in an LNG project and how they are structured
  • The economic value of an LNG project
  • A global view of LNG supplies by region
  • How LNG competes in the energy market
  • Where the key LNG markets are and their characteristics
  • How LNG trading works
  • The differences between trading oil and LNG
  • How LNG is priced and regional differences

Who Should Attend?

New entrants to the LNG industry
Managers in specific areas of the LNG chain requiring a broader knowledge of the commercial issues affecting the business
Professional personnel interacting with LNG supplies, markets and trading e.g. finance, legal marketing and those who need to understand the various sectors of the value chain and how they interact

Course Content

What is LNG?

  • Terminology
  • LNG Properties
  • Units and conversion factors
  • Why LNG
  • Structure of the LNG industry


  • Basic principles of refrigeration
  • LNG liquefaction processes
  • Importance of gas quality
  • Comparison of process technologies
  • Project costs
  • New developments

LNG Plants

  • Where are they?
  • LNG milestones
  • Growth and size of the industry
  • Overview of global supply sources

LNG Shipping

  • Cost comparison versus pipeline
  • Special nature of LNG tankers
  • Ship technologies
  • Shipping costs
  • Shipping capacity and delivery capabilities
  • Shipping market
  • Implications for LNG trading

LNG Regasification

  • Processes involved
  • Terminal operations
  • Offshore regasification
  • Constraints to developing terminals
  • Regional overview of terminals

Commercial considerations in developing LNG projects How does LNG compete?

  • What are the alternatives to LNG?
  • Relative advantages and disadvantages of LNG
  • Market value versus other fuels

Who are the players?

  • Players in the value chain
    • Governments
    • Oil majors
    • National Oil Companies
    • Independents
    • Shipping providers
    • Buyers
    • Terminal operators
    • Finance providers
    • Traders
    • Local stakeholders
    • Environmental Organisations
    • Regulators
  • Drivers, Influence and concerns for each player

Commercial Structure of an LNG Project

  • Developing an LNG project
  • Alternative Commercial Structures
  • LNG Contract chain Contractual arrangements and timing
  • Complexity of integrating requirements
  • Overview of the Agreements

Main Agreements in an LNG project

  • Contractual terminology
  • Monetising the Upstream
    • Upstream Agreements
    • Joint Venture Agreements
  • Monetising the midstream
    • LNG Supply purchase Agreements
    • Shipping contracts
  • Import terminal arrangements
  • LNG financing arrangements

LNG Project profitability

  • Project life cycle
  • Need for long term cash flow
  • Project economics
  • Risk analysis
  • Value splits in an LNG Project

LNG Supplies, Markets and Trading LNG Supplies - where will it come from?

  • Global overview
  • Regional supplies from existing markets
  • Potential new projects
  • Country profiles
  • Key success factors
  • Constraints on new project developments

LNG Markets - where will it go?

  • Overview of Natural gas consumption
  • Growing importance of LNG
  • Overview of regional markets
  • Country profiles for the main importers

LNG Trade

  • Historical trade flows
  • Current trading routes
  • Major players
  • Requirements for portfolio trading
  • Constraints on LNG trading
  • Types of trade (long term versus short term)
  • Impact of regulations
  • Diversions/swaps and arbitrage

LNG Pricing

  • LNG pricing basis/principles
  • Market based pricing (impact of pricing formulae)
  • Natural gas pricing
  • Price Reviews
  • Impact of trading on LNG/natural gas pricing

LNG - The Future

  • Growth potential
  • Globalisation
  • New technologies
  • New frontiers
  • New players Trading and commoditisation
  • Constraints on new project developments

Exercises and Case Studies will include:

  • LNG contracts
  • Roles of players
  • Shipping requirements
  • LNG Quality
  • Netback Analysis

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In the Classroom or Online

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